WILLIAM ANDREW CHAPMAN ~ The travels of a Palmerston North family’s WW1 memorial plaque finally end in London.

2/2792 – WILLIAM ANDREW CHAPMAN – DOW France    

Some years ago I saw a very nicely mounted WW1 Memorial Plaque on TradeMe that was named to one WILLIAM ANDREW CHAPMAN.  I thought at the time someone had gone to quite a lot of trouble to have it set into a solid (and heavy) nicely finished piece of polished mahogany, in the shape of a shield with cord attached for hanging on a wall.  It struck me that the superior finish of the plaque mounting must have reflected the deep sense of loss (and pride) the Chapman family had felt when their son and brother did not return from the war, having paid the supreme price. 

Someone in this man’s descendant lineage might be very grateful for it in time I thought.  At that time I was in the initial planning stages of setting up Medals Reunited NZ and anticipated that it might take some time to get established and my service known and in the interim I would probably need a few projects to fill the gap until I started to receive requests to return medals that had been found.  Such ‘filler’ projects would also provide me an ideal vehicle to test and tweak my research processes and to develop my website posting skills without the constraints of time – so I bought the plaque.

As it happened the public response to the MRNZ service came faster than I had anticipated and so the plaque was placed on the back burner whilst I dealt with (and am still dealing with!) the public finds that were coming across my desk.  My passive advertising process is to log all finds onto the LOST TRAILS page of the MRNZ website as well as the Auckland War Memorial Museum’s Cenotaph website.  That done I then thought no more about this plaque – until recently.


Memorialising the Dead

Memorial Plaque (‘Dead-man’s Penny’) – WILLIAM ANDREW CHAPMAN

The WW1 memorial plaque was, and still is, known by a variety of names – the most common being: ‘Dead-man’s Penny’ or ‘Death Penny’ – the term ‘penny’ resulted from the plaque’s similarity to the copper one penny coin in use at the time.   Widow’s Plaque and Widow’s Penny were also used where a soldier had been married.

During a former life as a Funeral Director I became acquainted with the origins of the term ‘Dead-man’s Penny’ – a specific reference to Victorian funeral preparation which included using copper 1 Penny (1d) coins inserted under the eyelids of the deceased, or laid on top of the closed (or not!) eyes of a cadaver so as to make them presentable for relatives who would sit with the body as long as it remained in the house.

Apart from service medals, most of which had been issued and sent to next of kin by Dec 1921, a Memorial Plaque was granted to the designated next of kin of those members of the British and contributing Empire nations who had died whilst in uniformed service during WW1.  This included those killed regardless of circumstances (with the exception of death due to suicide, mutiny or cowardice) including those who had died of wounds, sickness, disease, accident or natural causes.  It also included those who had died whilst in uniformed service ‘at home’ – not having gone overseas, or attracting associated service medals.  The Memorial Plaque was the last item the next of kin of a dead serviceman or woman received from the NZ Government on behalf of the Sovereign, to formally acknowledge the service and sacrifice made.  They were mailed out to families from 1919 onward. 

Each Memorial Plaque wrapped in a sturdy cardboard envelope was accompanied by a calligraphic Memorial Scroll which bore the soldier’s rank, name and military unit.  With these also came a form letter of condolence signed by King George V plus a photograph of the soldiers’s grave (where there was one) marked by a named wooden cross, and placed into a small grey coloured memorial card/folder.


Almost one and a half million memorial plaques were awarded after WW1 (approximately 600 for women).  The plaque design had resulted from a public competition in 1917 which attracted more than 800 entries from around the Empire.  Featured in the plaque’s design was a ‘name tablet’ – an area for the deceased person’s name to be inserted at the time of manufacture so that it would appear in relief like the rest of the plaque’s features, as opposed to being impressed or engraved like medals were.  When the plaque was conceived in 1916 it was decided that only a person’s full name (those names they had enlisted under) would appear – no rank, unit or service.  The rational being that there was no distinction in the type of sacrifice a person made; in death all men and women irrespective of their rank or position, were equal.

The fact that a memorial plaque bears only the name of the deceased presents an inherent problem for researchers. “Charles Smith” for instance, of which there were no doubt thousands in the English speaking world at the time of WW1, does little to identify which Charles Smith that particular memorial plaque refers.  This in itself has led to a fraudulent trade in reproduction plaques being named and sold on the internet to unsuspecting relatives.  Only when a plaque is accompanied by verifying ephemera, or the uniqueness of the name together with its verifiable origin, can a plaque be almost proven to belong to a specific “Charles Smith”.

Chasing the Chapmans – I

In the case of the CHAPMAN plaque all I had to go on was the existing name.  The more forenames there are the better – that narrows the field of whom the plaque commemorates;  geographical location of the plaque may also help however after 100 plus years these things have now been spread world-wide.  Here in NZ our geographical isolation to some extent helps researchers since there is a good chance that items such as plaques that are turned up come from within our own population.  The logical place to start when trying to match a non-associated name like ‘William Andrew Chapman’ is to see if he belonged to NZ, the UK, Australia, South Africa etc, is the Auckland War Memorial Museum Cenotaph website and the NZEF Embarkation Rolls.  In this case it was an easy exercise to confirm the origins of William Andrew Chapman and his connection to the NZEF.


2/2792 Gnr. Will Chapman, NZ Field Artillery – Feb 1916.   Source: John Chapman Collection

William Andrew CHAPMAN was born at “Hope Farm” in the hills above Petone, Wellington, on 14 Aug 1895, the son of sheep and dairy farmer William (“Willie”) Luxford Hirst Chapman (Snr) and mother Jane, nee BOWDEN.  Willie Chapman had been born in Upper Kaiwarra (Kaiwharawhara), Wellington, at a farm his parents and two elder sisters had settled soon after their arrival in New Zealand from England in 1858.  Willie had spent his early childhood there until the family moved up to “Hope Farm” in 1867.  In the early 1880s Willie had enrolled as a student at the Theological Hall in Dunedin. While there, he met a young woman, Jane BOWDEN, originally from a farming area near Belfast, Ireland whom he wooed and subsequently married at the Northeast Valley Parish Church on New Year’s Day, 1885.  The couple settled at Hope Farm the following year, once the building of a new home had been completed, a stone’s throw from Willie’s parents’ house.  Their five children were all born there between 1886 and 1895 – John Henry, Jessie Moore, Agnes Anne, Louisa Jane and William Andrew Chapman (Jnr).  Willie may have moved to Palmerston North ahead of the family in 1900 (his name – William Luxford Hirst Chapman, Farmer – appears in that year’s Electoral Rolls) but it was not until April 1901 that the whole of the family were together again in their new home on the 70-acre farm in the north-western corner of the town.

“J” Battery – NZA insignia- Source:Te Papa

‘For King and Empire’

William Chapman (Jnr) was working as a clerk for Rutherford & Connell (Est. 1887), a firm of accountants and public secretaries in Palmerston North at the time he was ‘called to the colours’ for war service in 1915.  20 year old “Will” as he was known, had spent his two previous years in part-time service of the New Zealand Regiment of Artillery Volunteers – Palmerston North’s “J” Battery.

Gnr. Chapman (closest camera) boarding HMNZT 47 Willochra at Wellington – 4 March, 1916.    Source: John Chapman Collection

2/2792 Gunner William Andrew Chapman N.Z.E.F. was enlisted on 16 November 1915 and assigned to the NZEF Field Artillery, No 1 Field Battery and would be deploying with he 10th Reinforcements for the NZEF.  He arrived at Trentham Camp to start his basic training  seven weeks after his 21st birthday.  After the requisite medical checks, pre-embarkation training and overseas equipment issues Gnr. Chapman and the 10th Reinforcements embarked the HMNZT 47 Willochra at Wellington on 4 March 1916, bound for the port of Suez at the southern end of the Suez Canal, Egypt.  On April 10th the Willochra arrived at Suez and the reinforcements were transported by rail to Alexandria.  Just four days later they were on their way again – the 10th embarked the troop transport ship S.S. Kinfauns Castle at Port Said, Alexandria and sailed for Etaples, France and the NZ Reinforcements Base, arriving two weeks later on 24 April. 

With orientation and preparatory training required before going into the field the NZ Field Artillery reinforcements spent the best part of the next 20 weeks in camp before finally joining the NZ Divisional Artillery units in the field on 5 Sep 1916.  On his arrival in the field Gnr. Chapman was posted to the NZ Divisional Ammunition Column (DAC) which had the responsibility for transporting ammunition and keeping the field artillery batteries supplied for their fire missions.  These could be initiated at any time of the day or night in support of infantry operations, or to suppress enemy fire and disrupt their routines – keeping the enemy guessing.

NZ Divisional Ammunition Column (DAC) on the Somme, 1917

Little more is known of Gnr. Chapman’s specific activities for the next eight months or so however history tells us that during this period the NZ Div. Artillery batteries were very heavily committed supporting some of the fiercest battles of the war the NZ Division was to be involved in.  1918 had heralded the start of series of  offensives to drive the German front back into Belgium starting with Battle of Polygon Wood on 26 September.  This was followed in fairly rapid succession by battles at Broodseinde, Passchendaele (NZ greatest loss of soldiers in a single day), Arras, Ancre, Albert and Bapaume.  Gnr. Chapman was indeed somewhat fortunate to escape some of these horrors as he had received his first grant of leave since arriving in the field, two 10 day periods in the UK one each in August and September. 

Whilst Will was on leave the battles of Harvincourt, Canal du Nord, Cambrai and Selle accounted for many more Kiwi casualties however the NZ Division was making good progress in routing the Hun.  By the time he returned from leave, unbeknown to Will, his tour of duty was all but over.  He had returned to his post with the DAC just in time for what would become the last major offensive by the NZ Division of the war – the Battle of Sambre and subsequent capture/liberation of the town of Le Quesnoy on 4 November where a section of the 3rd NZ Rifle Bde’s 4th Battalion famously scaled the inner city walls by ladder – shades of a city under siege in ancient Roman times.  The 3NZRB and ultimately the Division were victorious and following the town’s liberation, during which numerous Kiwi soldiers had distinguish themselves, the Armistice was signed between the allies and Germany at 11 am on the 11th of November (Armistice Day) thus officially ending hostilities of World War 1.  But as most will be aware wars do not stop at a given time on any given day – they roll on until cessation has been effectively communicated to all units involved and effective disengagement has occurred thus necessitating all units remaining in place.

The NZ Field Artillery and NZ DAC would remain in place for some days to come.  It will be recalled that Gnr.  Chapman had not long arrived back from leave to the UK.  It was September 1918 and the Spanish Influenza epidemic that was sweeping the globe had taken a firm grip and resulted in thousands of deaths worldwide.  Will had begun feeling unwell during the first week of November.  Four days after Armistice he was admitted to the 3rd NZ Field Ambulance with confirmed influenza symptoms.  Unfortunately he did not respond to treatment at the Field Ambulance and deteriorated rapidly.  As a result he was quickly transferred to the next level of medical care at No. 3 Casualty Clearing Station (3CCS) on 15 Nov having just re-located from Beaulencourt to Caudry, a town about 25 km SW of Le Quesnoy.  

1924 – former German hospital in Caudry – used as No. 3 Casualty Clearing Station from Nov 1918 – Gnr. Will Chapman died here.

3CCS occupied the former German hospital that had been setup in a double story brick country house on the outskirts of Caudry when the Germans occupied the town in August 1914.  Under pressure from the allied advance the Germans evacuated Caudry in October 1918 taking 10,000 citizen refugees with them whom they force marched 200 miles to Belgium.  Caudry was liberated by British in mid-November 1918.

Gnr. William Andrew Chapman, aged 24, died at No. 3 Casualty Clearing Station on 27 November 1918, sixteen days after the Armistice.  He was buried in the Caudry German Military Cemetery, now the Caudry British Cemetery, 6 kms WNW of the town of Le Cateau.  Will Chapman is in good company – there are 52 other New Zealand soldiers at rest beside him.

Awards:  British War Medal, 1914-18 and Victory Medal; Memorial Plaque & Scroll

Service Overseas:  2 years 268 days

Total NZEF Service:  3 years 11 days


Chasing the Chapmans – II

Will’s brother Jack (John Henry) and sister Jessie at his grave – 4 April, 1922.      Source: John Chapman Collection 

In March 2016 I re-activated the Chapman research and posted a request for information on a few family trees in Ancestry that contained William Chapman, born 1895 in NZ.  18 months later (to the day!) on 15 Sep 2017 I received a response in the form of an apology for a late reply from Sarah H. of Palmerston North.  Sarah told me she had let her Ancestry account lapse and had only reactivated it in September 2017 to participate in the DNA testing – as a result she found my message.  Better late than never I reckon.

Sarah is the great-granddaughter of Louisa Alexandrina Balfour Chapman, a Scottish woman who married Scotsman, James NAIRN, in Petone Wellington in 1869.  Louisa was one of Will Chapman’s two aunts, the other being Ann Fuljames Chapman, the sisters of his father, Willie Chapman. 

Unusually Will Chapman’s three sisters had all remained spinsters and therefore produced no heirs.  Of the five Chapman siblings only Will’s brother Jack Chapman was to marry, Harriet Gertrude Pearson BLACKLOCK, known as ‘Gertie’ to the family.  They married in Wellington in 1915 and had three children – Beryl, Ian and Donald, shortly after which Jack’s employment had required the family to emigrate firstly to Geneva, Switzerland and later to the USA where they saw out their lives. 

Through Sarah H’s own family history research she was able to alert me to the fact that the grandson of John and Gertie Chapman was living in London and that she had been in touch with him regarding the existence of Will’s Memorial Plaque.

John Chapman with the plaque – London, 1st Nov 2017

John Thorleif * Blacklock Chapman was born in London in 1947 and is married to Janet HERITAGE from Yorkshire.  John is the last living direct descendant male to bear the Chapman name – his younger sisters Caroline Mary and Janet Rosamond, both married with children, obviously do not.  

I was keen to contact John whom based om my research seemed to be the most logical person to receive the plaque on behalf of the Chapman family.  John was thrilled at the prospect and was able to furnish me with a detailed family tree and a number of photographs of Will Chapman some of which feature in this post.

* Note: “Thorleif” was the given name of John’s maternal 4 X great-grandfather, Thorleifur Gudmundsson (1794-1857) who was Icelandic.   

The Chapman family on the track up to “Hope Farm”, Petone – c1902 … L-R: ‘Louie’, ‘Aggie’, ‘Willie’ (f), Jessie, Jane (m), ‘Jack’ and ‘Will’.     Source: John Chapman Collection

As Will’s three sisters had all died childless in Palmerston North, and Will of course in France in 1918, this resulted in no surviving direct descendant Chapmans being left in New Zealand.  This left only Jack Chapman as the last surviving sibling however he had long ago left the country.  John was able to explain how Jack (John Henry) Chapman had unwittingly become the disconnecting link of this Chapman family with New Zealand …. John takes up the story:

” The apparent disconnection from New Zealand of Will’s elder brother John Henry Chapman (my grandfather, ‘Jack’) and his descendants is explained primarily by Jack’s appointment to a post as a statistician in the Economic and Financial Section of the League of Nations Secretariat in 1921 (making him the first NZer to be attached to the organisation). He and his family remained based in Geneva, Switzerland, until 1940 when – with the continued functioning of the organisation under threat – he and his colleagues were evacuated to the USA (something of a saga), in his case to Princeton, New Jersey.  By the time of his unexpected death in 1948, he was working as a special adviser to the new-born UN and was then living in New York State.

Beryl, my aunt and the eldest of Jack’s three children, married a Swiss national (Jean Ernest Renard) in Geneva, in 1940, shortly before her parents’ and younger brother Don’s exodus to the US.   Beryl and Jean had an all male family of three sons (both Beryl and her husband died some years ago).

My father (Ian William Pearson Chapman), a student at Edinburgh University in 1940, became ‘trapped’ in the UK and eventually served in the British army during WW2, marrying an English girl in 1945.  He returned to Geneva in 1948 after securing a post with the UN.  After his death in 1957, my mother plus my sisters and I moved to England, settling initially near my mothers’ relations in Nottingham.

Though I am the last of this branch of the family to bear the surname ‘Chapman’, there are many descendants of Will’s father’s aunts – in Australia in the case of Annie (m surname ‘Hord’); principally in NZ in the case of Louisa (m surname ‘Nairn’, from whom Sarah H. is descended).

My grandfather was an inveterate collector and over the years kept a vast number of photos (including some 3,500 of his own snapshots, 1921 to late 1940s), mostly annotated with date / place / names of people in them, letters, postcards, and many other odds and ends. These descended to his daughter, Beryl.  It is thanks to the generosity of her sons that the entire archive has been passed to me.”


You may also wonder, if Jack Chapman and family had emigrated to Switzerland in 1921 and the remaining NZ family of Chapmans (Will’s parents and three spinster sisters) had all died by the mid 1960s, how then did Will’s memorial plaque remain in New Zealand rather than going to Jack and Gertie Chapman, then living in the USA?

After evaluating the family’s status for the period 1918 to 1970, it was known that after Will had died in 1918 his medals, the memorial plaque & scroll, etc had all been sent to his designated Next Of Kin – his grief stricken mother and father in Palmerston North, between 1920 and 1922.  Will’s sister Louisa died in Dec 1918 (also of influenza) just three weeks after her brother Will.  Father Willie Chapman (79) passed away in 1941 followed by daughter Jessie (46) in 1943, and then mother Jane (90) in 1944.  Brother Jack (John Henry) had died in New York state in 1948 (62) leaving sister Agnes Anne Chapman the last surviving family member.  Agnes remained in the family home at No. 50 Russell Street – later re-numbered to 73 – that Willie Chapman had built after he had retired in 1925.  She had felt very strongly that, during the years after the death of her sister Jessie, and their mother the following year, she should continue to live in the family home that their father had built, feeling duty bound to stay there in honour of what she saw as the culmination and reward of his many years of hard work providing for the family – to the point that she may have thought of the house itself as being the true ‘owner’ of the plaque, together with all its other accumulated possessions.   The plaque no doubt would have had pride of place given it was so beautifully mounted. 

Agnes died on 10 Oct 1967 aged 76, thus ending this Chapman family’s connection in NZ.   It is highly likely Agnes had possession of the plaque at least until she she died.  Unless she had disposed of her brother’s plaque before her death, or had made provision for its bequest in her will, then items such as it would likely have been disposed of by her estate trustee along with her possessions and household effects.  This is often the case after a person with no obvious descendant relatives dies, or who die intestate – no provision of a will.  Unless otherwise pre-arranged, a trustee (e.g. Public Trust) is required to wind up an estate and pay all costs associated with death, the priority being funeral director fees and burial costs, from the sale of the deceased’s assets.  That being the case, Will Chapman’s memorial plaque would likely have been placed in the hands of an auctioneer where antique collectors and military memorabilia enthusiasts would have had the opportunity to acquire, swap and/or trade the plaque numerous times over the last 45 years, hence its appearance on Trade-Me NZ in 2014 – until I rescued it !


Sarah H. and husband Ian were travelling south recently and made a point of stopping in at Nelson to meet with me and provide some answers to queries my research had thrown up about the Chapman lineage.  Sarah was delighted that John Chapman had contacted me and that the plaque would be going to him.  Not with-standing the fact John and wife Janet have no family of their own, I have every confidence that John, like his grandfather before him, has inherited the “inveterate collector” mantle.  Since his fathers death John has become custodian of the Chapman family’s history and memorabilia, and as such I know he will ensure Gunner William Andrew Chapman’s commemorative Memorial Plaque remains a treasured family possession.  The plaque is on its way to London.  I have in the last few days received an email from John Chapman in London confirming the safe arrival in London of the plaque – fantastic !  International post of such items is always a ‘heart in the mouth’ exercise until arrival is confirmed.

I am very grateful to Sarah for, a) answering my Ancestry request albeit 18 months after its posting and, b) her enthusiasm in making contact with John Chapman and putting him in touch with Medals Reunited NZ – a very satisfying outcome.

The reunited medal tally is now 174.








** Two letters from Will Chapman to his brother Jack (John Henry) in Wellington …


France – 9/3/17

Dear Jack,                          

Just a short note so that you know how we are faring away over here. I had intended writing some time back but the whole outfit was unsettled for some considerable time, consequently we were all kept fairly busy. However we have now got this show in a fairly respectable state and get a little spare time occasionally.

               I received your welcome letter of Jan. 19th last evening along with several others from home and was pleased to hear that you were all well at the time of writing. The new year cake Gertie sent also arrived the same mail for which many thanks. We had it for supper last night and the boys all send their thanks. I have received a fair number of parcels lately, mostly delayed Xmas ones, so have been living fairly well.

               Things are going along very well now although we have plenty of toil. When not actually out with the teams we have to polish up the harness and do a lot of useless toil such as cleaning buttons, bandoliers etc. etc.. It is certainly a great life but it is the regulations, red tape etc. that make our life unpleasant. It is rather hard too when one has to carry out orders of some of the domineering class of officers who are mentally and physically one’s inferiors. However such is the rule of the Army but after the brawl things will be different. No more of the military game for me.

               I thought I told you about the smack I got on the finger. It was nothing much – just the flesh peeled off the first finger by a splinter from a H. E. shell. We were standing in the lines when a shell burst about 15 yards away. Luckily it landed in the soft mud so there wasn’t much damage done, the soft earth partly smothering the effect of the burst. Rather too close for my liking.

               The weather is now getting a bit better not quite so cold as it was about a month back. We still get a fall of snow every few days but the frosts are not so severe now. I suppose we will experience some typical spring weather for the next two months – wind and rain most of the time.

               Thanks for the photos you sent. Beryl must be getting a big girl now.

               Did you get the copy of “Shell Shocks” I sent some time back. It is rather good in parts. I sent home some copies of “Fragments from France” a few weeks ago. You want to have a look at them – some very good sketches of trench life.

               Well there isn’t any more news so I will finish off. Kindly remember me to Charlie and other relatives and love to you all.


                                                                           your loving brother

                                                                                          Will (Chapman)

P.S. Also received your Xmas card for which many thanks.



France – 11/7/17

Dear Jack,

Your welcome letter of 8/5/17 came to hand a few days ago and I was leased to hear that you were all well at Wgtn. I should have written long ago but really there is so little news even when we get some time to spare.

               Things are still going well with us here and we are enjoying a few days rest after the recent stunt. We had a very lively time during the beginning of last month and had to toil like heroes day and night. I can assure you I wasn’t sorry when the worst of it was over and we could get up near the front without fear of gas, the thing that scares us most of all.

During the past week we held a sports meeting but it was nothing startling – merely a few running events and a few hurdle races for the horses. It was rather amusing to see some of the officers trying to ride horses over the hurdles – some of them were very poor horsemen and very soon came to grief much to the delight of the crowd. It was our day “out” so you can be sure we criticised them rather freely.

I saw Eric Gardner* a few days ago. He is now a major as you no doubt know. I also met Fred Bridgeman and Andy Boughton**, both of whom are well and send their regards. Tom Graham*** and Dave Stubbs**** likewise wish to be remembered to you.

The weather here continues to be good and it is a pleasure being out in the open these days. We had a storm for a couple of days about a fortnight back but it didn’t inconvenience us very much and helped to clear the atmosphere of the oppressive heat. The crops round about where we are encamped are all looking fine and show a remarkable growth since we were here last, only a few weeks ago.

Your garden must be looking well now after all the work you have put in on it. Lou was telling me about it in her last letter and drew a small diagram of your recent improvements to one of the terraces. I suppose the earth has now settled down and there won’t be any slips to spoil your work. And how is the work at the office? Still kept busy I suppose when the oversea boats arrive.

Well as news is just about finished I will close.

                                                            Love to all

                                                                           your loving brother

                                                                                          Will Chapman

P.S. Have received several papers from you lately for which many thanks.

Source: John Chapman Collection


* Duncan Eric Gardner, Major in the NZFA (Serial No 2/1000), b 1891. Originally from Wellington, he and his family moved to Palmerston North when he was a boy. His connection with the Chapmans probably dates back to when he was a student at Palmerston North High School where he was more or less a contemporary of Aggie (who was a year older) and Louie (younger than him but in a higher form). At the time of his enlistment (having risen to the rank of Lieutenant in the Reserves) he was working as a commercial traveller. Survived the war. Was awarded the DSO and was twice Mentioned in Dispatches. Died at Balclutha (Otago) in 1969.

** Andrew John Boughton, a Gunner in the NZFA (2/2784), b 1885. Came from Te Kuiti, Auckland where he was a tailor. Left Wellington in the same two-ship convoy as Will. Survived the war and then, by now a married man, re-joined the armed forces as a Private during WW2. Was killed in 1942. It is not known how Will and Jack came to know him.

***  Thomas Gore Graham, (no relation to Archie Graham), an ambulanceman in the NZMC (3/2510), b. 1894. Originally from Lower Hutt but was living in Palmerston North (employed as a clerk at a stock auctioneering firm) when he joined up. Survived the war to return to Palmerston North where he remained until his death in 1960. He and his wife Dorothy are mentioned in several of Jessie and Aggie’s letters. Jack pasted into his scrapbook a 1906 newspaper notice (sent by cousin Annie Nairn) of the marriage at the Knox Church in Lower Hutt between John C. Moginie and Sylvia Speedy, youngest sister of Thomas Gore Graham’s mother (Eliza Caroline Graham, nee Speedy). The Lower Hutt and Knox Church connections suggest that the link between the Chapman and Graham families dates back to the time before the Chapmans came to Palmerston North.

**** David William Stubbs, Corporal in the NZFA (2/2954), b 1894. Was a contemporary of Will’s and fellow rugby player at Palmerston North High School.  Joined up the same day as Will. Was employed in a pharmacy before the war and later took up farming. Died in Wanganui, 1973.